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Desktop Published Historical Wargames designed by Rob Markham




Markham Designs is proud to announce its latest release, Guadalajara, 1937 on August 20th. Covering the battle north of Madrid, Guadalajara, 1937 will kick off a new series of games that will cover some of the most significant battles of the Spanish Civil War. Units will be at battalion/regiment level and hexes will be .75 kilometers wide. The Battles of the Spanish Civil War System continues the philosophy of Markham Designs - keep it simple and make it elegant. The only work the gamer should have to do is have fun.

Guadalajara, 1937 is a big game by DTP standards. It comes with 10 11" by 17" maps and 300 die cut counters, as well as rules and charts. While big, the game is highly playable. It is suitable for two-player, solitaire, or multi-player play. The counters are as near to professional quality as any DTP game has come.

For those unfamiliar with the battle, it pits the Nationalist forces of Franco (represented by the Moroccan forces) and the "volunteers" from fascist Italy (including the Black Arrow and Black Flame Divisions). The use of the Italian forces in the battle would, once and for all, lift the artifice of an all-Spanish fight for all the world to see. In an attack from the north of Madrid, the Nationalists attempted to complete the circle around Madrid, while the Republicans desperately fought to hold open the line of communications from Madrid. The battle was a wild, see-saw affair with the initial surge of the Nationalists countered by an aggressive counter-attack by the Republicans.
The game system includes rules for artillery, armor, air superiority, armored trains, supply, and morale. The basic rules set is only 7 pages in length and the exclusive rules are another two pages. Simple, but not simple-minded, the learning curve is so quick that 30 minutes after opening the package you should be setting up counters and preparing for play.

Playtesting for this game has been a lot of fun, as both sides get their chances for automatic victories. While big, measuring 34" by 48", the campaign game can be played in a long afternoon, with the initial 'Nationalist Assault' scenario taking 2 to 3 hours to play.

Currently, Guadalajara, 1937 is available for the prepublication price of $45, plus $3.50 shipping domestically (overseas costs $8 shipping). After September 20, 2001, the price will rise to $50. Send checks or money orders to: Rob Markham, 30 Erickson Road, New Milford, CT 06776.


Basic Rules for
The Battles of the Spanish Civil War System

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Sequence of Play
3.0 Movement
4.0 Zones of Control
5.0 Stacking
6.0 Artillery Bombardment
7.0 Combat
8.0 Supply
9.0 Morale
10.0 Air Power

1.0 Introduction
The Battles of the Spanish Civil War system is designed to provide a common system for combat that occurred during the Spanish Civil War. Individual games will also include a Games Rulebook that contains modifications to the system for the specific battles being simulated.

1.1 Game Components

1.11 Game Die
A ten sided die is used to resolve combat. A 0 is read as a 10 result. The die is not included in the game.

1.12 Counters
There are two types of counters - military units and informational counters.

1.13 Game Map
The game maps depict the actual area in which the battle or campaign was fought. A hexagonal grid has been superimposed over the map to help regulate game play.

1.14 Scale
Individual Game Rulebooks will state the scale of each game.

1.2 Definitions

Barrage Factors: These numerical factors are used by artillery units (printed on the unit) and air units (all air units have a factor of 8) when conducting bombardment (artillery) or ground support (air).

Combat Factors: These are the numerical factors used by the units when attacking or defending during combat.

Morale Rating: The Morale rating of a unit is the numerical representation of a unit's ability to remain cohesive in the face of the enemy. A unit with a high rating is considered to be better than a unit with a low rating.

Movement Allowance: The number of movement points that a unit has available during its two movement phases. The First Movement Phase uses the first movement allowance. The Second Movement Phase uses the second movement allowance. Movement allowances are printed on the Morale Track Charts.

Range: All artillery units have a range of 10 hexes.

2.0 Sequence of Play
The Sequence of Play should be strictly followed. All actions of a phase are completed in that phase. The order of phases may not be altered, and phases may not be skipped. Each Games Rulebook may modify the Sequence of Play and will list which side is considered the first player.

2.1 Game Turn Sequence Outline

A. First Player's Initial Movement Phase
1. The phasing player removes 'Fired' markers from his Artillery units (6.4).
2. Supply is checked for the first player's units.
3. All friendly units with initial movement capability may move.
4. Friendly reinforcements are brought onto the map.
5. Friendly rail movement is conducted.
6. Overruns may be conducted.
7. Units may be designated as improving their position.

B. First Player's Artillery Bombardment and Air Phase
1. Friendly artillery bombardment is conducted.
2. Both players secretly place air units into their respective boxes for air superiority.
3. The phasing player's air units are placed on hexes for ground support or for interdiction.
4. Air superiority is resolved.
5. Ground support missions are resolved.

C. Second Player's Defensive Artillery Fire Phase
The second player may use artillery to conduct bombardments against enemy units within artillery range.

D. First Player's Combat Phase
1. First player now chooses his units which are adjacent to enemy units to conduct combat.
2. Supply is checked by both players.
3. Combat is resolved and results are applied.

E. First Player's Second Movement Phase
1. Supply is checked again for the first player's units.
2. All friendly units in supply and with second movement capability may move.
3. All friendly units that are not in supply may not use their second movement capability.
4. Overruns may be conducted.

F. First Player's Morale Recovery Phase
The first player now checks his disrupted units for disruption removal. He also checks for Command Effectiveness (see 9.4).

G. Second Player's Initial Movement Phase
Same as Phase A above.

H. Second Player's Artillery Bombardment and Air Phase
Same as Phase B above.

I. First Player's Defensive Artillery Fire Phase
Same as Phase C above.

J. Second Player's Combat Phase
Same as Phase D above.

K. Second Player's Second Movement Phase
Same as Phase E above.

L. Second Player's Morale Recovery Phase
Same as Phase F above.

M. Mutual Air End Phase
Both players remove air units from their air superiority boxes and flip them face-up. They are available for the next turn (10.12 subsection 5).

3.0 Movement
There are two movement phases per turn for each player - an initial movement phase, followed by a second movement phase. Units may only move in a movement phase if they possess a movement allowance greater than 0 for the current movement phase. Units may be moved in any order by the owning player. As they move, they expend movement points (terrain costs to enter a hex are listed on the Terrain Effects Chart).

1. Out of supply units have their second movement allowance reduced to 0.
2. A unit may always move one hex if it has a movement allowance greater than 0 for the current movement phase.
3. No unit may enter a hex occupied by an enemy unit.

3.1 Rail Movement
To move by rail, a unit must begin its Initial Movement Phase on a friendly rail hex. It is then placed on the Rail Transfer Box. On the next friendly Initial Movement Phase, they are placed on any other friendly rail hex that can trace a connected rail back to the starting hex, that does not contain an enemy unit or an enemy unit's zone of control (ZOC). The unit is removed from the Rail Transfer Box and placed on the map. The unit may not move during the two Initial Movement Phases (both the phase where the unit is placed on the Transfer Box and where the unit is removed from the Transfer Box and placed on the map). Once placed, the unit may move normally in the Second Movement Phase if it has the movement allowance to do so. Units out of supply may not use rail movement. The Game Rulesbook will list any restrictions on rail movement. [Please note that Guadalajara does not have rail movement except for one Armored Train unit.]

3.2 Overruns
Only a stack containing an armor unit(s) may overrun. Other units stacked with armor may also participate, contributing their combat factors to the overrun. To attempt an overrun, a unit or stack moves adjacent to an enemy occupied hex. The phasing player announces an overrun attempt and expends the movement points that it would cost to enter the hex, plus one. The player then totals the attack strength of the attacking units and the defensive units plus any terrain defensive bonuses. Combat is then conducted. If the combat results in the defending hex being vacated, the overrunning stack advances into the hex and may continue movement if it has movement points to do so. If the defending unit still occupies the hex after the overrun combat, then the overrunning units have concluded their movement phase. Overrunning units may also engage in regular combat during the Combat Phase.

3.3 Reinforcements
Each turn, both players should check the reinforcement chart in the Game Rulebook for any reinforcements for the current turn. Reinforcements are placed on the entry hexes (without cost) and may move their entire movement allowance that turn. If the entry hex is occupied by an enemy unit, the reinforcements may enter any hex along the corresponding map edge within 8 hexes of the entry hex. Reinforcements may enter an entry hex in an enemy ZOC. Reinforcements may not overstack in an entry hex.

3.4 Improved Position
Units may increase their defensive position by improving their position. To improve their position, a unit does not move during the Initial Movement Phase and has an inverted Improved Position marker placed on top of it. At the end of the Second Movement Phase, if the unit has not moved, the Improved Position marker is flipped to its front side.

Improved positions add a +2 modifier to barrage attacks and increase the defensive strength of the hex by 2. Also, units in Improved positions may ignore retreats (7.2).

Restrictions and Exceptions
1. Units improving their position may not be adjacent to enemy units when they begin to improve their position.
2. Units improving their positions may not take part in combat during the combat phase between movement phases.
3. Only infantry (including mech infantry) and engineers may improve their position.
4. All other units may not improve their position, but may benefit from being in a hex that has an improved position marker.
5. Engineers may create improved positions for artillery units and Headquarters. Once created, the engineer unit may move on leaving the artillery unit or Headquarters in the improved position.

Example: Two units are in a hex with an improved position, one with a strength of 4 and one with a strength of 5.The opposing player decides to attack with 10 factors. When figuring the differential, the defending units have a strength of 11 (9 for their strength points and +2 for the improved position. The final differential would be -1 so the <-1 column would be used. Had it been a bombardment, the attacking player would have had a +2 modifier on the die roll.

4.0 Zones of Control (ZOC)
All combat units, except Headquarters, have a zone of control. ZOCs constitute the six adjacent hexes surrounding the hex the combat unit is in. Friendly units occupying a hex in an enemy ZOC negate the effects of the ZOC for supply purposes only. Combat units which begin a Movement Phase in an enemy ZOC may move into a hex with no enemy ZOC at no extra cost (to move directly into an enemy ZOC from an enemy ZOC, see below).

4.1 Infantry, Engineers, and Artillery
When an enemy infantry, engineer, or artillery unit enters a ZOC, it must end its movement. When infantry, engineer, or artillery begin a Movement Phase in an enemy ZOC it may move into a hex with no enemy ZOC at no extra cost, or it may move directly into another hex with an enemy ZOC by expending its entire movement allowance.

4.2 Cavalry and Bicycles
Cavalry and bicycle units may exit an enemy ZOC at the cost of an extra 2 movement points each time this occurs, except at the beginning of a Movement Phase, when leaving an enemy ZOC and moving into a hex with no enemy ZOC costs no extra movement points. They may move directly from one enemy ZOC to another, as long as they have enough movement points to do so, including paying the extra cost of moving from an enemy ZOC.

Example One:
A cavalry unit with 5 movement points moves into a hex with an enemy ZOC. The hex is clear and the cavalry unit expends 1 movement point to make the move. The unit then expends 2 extra movement points, plus one movement point for the clear hex it is moving into. The cavalry unit may continue to move since it has one movement point remaining, unless it moved directly into another hex with an enemy ZOC, in which case it would not have the additional two movement points required to do so.

Example Two:
A cavalry unit begins its Movement Phase in an enemy ZOC. The cavalry unit moves directly into another hex (clear) with an enemy ZOC. The cavalry unit expends one movement point for entering a clear hex and two extra movement points for moving from an enemy ZOC to another enemy ZOC. If the hex the unit had moved into had been a clear hex with no enemy ZOC, it would have cost one movement point because the unit had started the turn in the enemy ZOC.

4.3 Armor, Mechanized Infantry, and Armored Car Units
Armor, mech. infantry, and armored cars may exit an enemy ZOC at the extra cost of 1 movement point each time this occurs, except at the beginning of a Movement Phase, when leaving an enemy ZOC and moving into a hex with no enemy ZOC costs no extra movement points. They may move directly from one enemy ZOC to another, as long as they have enough movement points to do so, including paying the extra cost of moving from an enemy ZOC.

5.0 Stacking
Normally, only two units (plus a Headquarters) may stack in a hex. Each Game Rulesbook will list other stacking restrictions, if applicable. Stacking applies at all times. Overstacked units are not eliminated if overstacked; instead, the units that move into the hex (and created the overstacking) receive an immediate D (disruption) result.

Overstacked units are ignored for combat calculation purposes, though adverse combat and bombardment results do apply to the overstacked units. An overstacked hex must be corrected as soon as possible.

To move together as a stack, units must begin the movement phase already stacked together. Units that begin the movement phase stacked together may, however, move separately. If moving as a stack, the stack must use the movement allowance of the slowest units in the stack. Naturally, you may choose to leave the slowest units behind when they have used up their movement allowance, and continue moving with the faster units.

6.0 Artillery Bombardment
Artillery units have a barrage factor. This barrage factor is used when conducting Bombardments. Each artillery unit may fire at enemy units within a range of 10 hexes. The range is the maximum number of hexes from the hex of an artillery unit using its Barrage Strength to the defending unit's hex (inclusive). Out of supply artillery units bombard at half strength rounded up.

An Artillery unit that conducts a bombardment may not then use its combat strength to attack during an adjacent combat (it does defend normally, however). Artillery may bombard adjacent or non-adjacent enemy units, but is never forced to attack an enemy unit. Artillery may combine Barrage Strength Points with other friendly artillery units bombarding the same enemy hex. Range from the bombarding artillery unit to the defending unit is counted by including the target hex but not the bombarding artillery unit's hex or hexes. To resolve the bombardment attack, total the number of Barrage Strength Points firing at a hex, and locate the appropriate column on the Bombardment Table. Roll a die, modify for defensive terrain, and apply the results.

6.1 Bombardment Resolution
On the Bombardment Table, there are four results: -, C, D, and DD. These results are applied immediately after the die roll.

Explanation of Results:
- = No effect.
C = All units in the target hex check for disruption.
D = All units in the target hex are disrupted.
DD = One unit in the target hex receives a DD result. Owning player chooses which unit. All other units are disrupted.

Note: If a unit has a D (disrupted) already and suffers another D result, a DD counter is placed on it. If a unit with a D suffers a DD result, it is eliminated.

6.2 Defensive Fire
Artillery units may conduct defensive fire. Artillery units conducting defensive fire may bombard enemy units adjacent to friendly units and within range.

6.3 Restrictions
The following rules are restrictions on artillery units:
1. Artillery units may only fire once per game turn. Place a 'Fired' marker on the artillery unit when it bombards or when it is used in an adjacent combat.
2. Artillery units may not fire at enemy units in woods hexes unless a friendly unit is adjacent or there are no intervening woods hexes, between the firing unit and the target (use a straight line between the two). If the line-of-sight is traced between two hexes, one, which is woods, and one which is other terrain, the artillery unit may still fire.

6.4 "Fired" Marker Effects
Each time an artillery unit conducts bombardment, it has a "fired" marker placed on it. Artillery units with a "fired" marker may not conduct any further bombardment or defensive fire. It may not move while a "fired" marker is on top. At the beginning of the friendly Initial Movement Phase of each turn, phasing artillery units have their "fired" marker removed.

7.0 Combat
Combat occurs between adjacent units. It is voluntary. The phasing player chooses which of his units will conduct combat against which enemy units. A stack of enemy units must be attacked as a stack, not broken down into individual units. To resolve these combats, add up the attack factors of all attacking units involved in a battle; then determine the defense factors of all defending units. Add any terrain bonuses to the defense factors of the defending units. Subtract the defender total from the attacker total, the result is the column used. The attacker should declare all combats before combat is resolved.

A. Two units of 6 combat factors each are attacking an adjacent enemy unit with 4 defensive factors in an improved position in a town for total terrain bonus of +4. Therefore, there are 12 attacking combat factors and 8 combat factors for the defender. The 4-5 column is used.
B. A unit with 6 combat factors is attacking a unit with 5 combat factors in a village (terrain bonus of 1). This totals 6 attacking combat factors to 6 defending combat factors. The result is a 0 differential and the 0-1 column is used.

7.1 Combat Resolution
Once the differential has been determined, combat must be resolved. A die is rolled, modified by any die roll modifiers, and the Combat Results Table is consulted. Results are applied immediately, before the next combat is resolved. Units that become disrupted are flipped to their blank side.

Explanation of CRT Results:
AC = Attacker checks all units for disruption.
ADD = One attacking units receives a DD. The owning player chooses which unit. All other attacking units are disrupted (D).
AE = All attacking units are eliminated.
Ex = The defending units are eliminated. The attacker must lose a number of units with combat factors equal to or greater than the printed combat factor of the eliminated defender. Use the defender's unmodified combat factors and the unmodified combat factors of the attacker. Remaining attackers are unaffected.
DD = One unit of the defender receives a DD result. The owning player chooses. All other units receive a disrupted (D) result.
D = All defending units in the target hex are disrupted.
DE = All defending units are eliminated.
BC = Both sides check their units for disruption.
Note: If a unit has a D (disrupted) already and suffers another D result, a DD counter is placed on it. If a unit with a D suffers a DD result, it is eliminated.

7.2 Retreats
When a unit is disrupted as a result of combat (either a D or DD result) , the unit must retreat one hex. The unit does not expend movement points, but may not retreat through a prohibited hex or across a prohibited hexside. Units in an improved position or a town may ignore the retreat requirement.

7.21 Retreat Restrictions
A. A retreating unit may not enter an enemy ZOC unless a friendly unit is in the hex.
B. A retreating unit may not enter an enemy occupied hex.
C. A retreating unit may retreat into a hex containing friendly units even if the retreating unit violates stacking. In the case of stacking violation, the retreating unit continues to retreat the number of hexes necessary to bring into an empty hex (and not in an enemy ZOC) or a hex that leaves it within normal stacking limits, whichever is reached first. It receives a D when retreating through the hex where stacking is violated.
D. Any unit or stack called on to retreat that has no useable path open to it, within the above restrictions, is eliminated instead.

7.22 Retreat Direction
Retreating units must, if possible, retreat in a direction where they would be in supply.

7.3 Advance After Combat
Whenever a defending hex is vacated as a result of combat, the attacker may advance a number of attacking units up to the stacking limits of the vacated hex. This may not occur if all attacking units have been disrupted or have been eliminated.

7.4 Headquarters in Combat
Headquarters may not attack and defend with strength of 1. If an Headquarter becomes disrupted, a "D" counter is placed on it, however, it always has a defense strength of one. Disruption has no effects on the Headquarters in game turns, though accumulated disruption results may eliminate the Headquarters the same as with other units.

7.5 Armor Modifiers
Any Republican attack (i.e. at least 1 armor unit participating) against a Nationalist defense generates a -2 modifier to the combat die roll. However, if the Nationalist unit(s) have any armor unit defending, the Republican armor attack generates only a -1 die roll modifier.

Attacking Nationalist armor units have a -1 die roll modifier against all Republican forces except stacks containing Republican armor, in which case there is no modifier.

These modifiers are in addition to all other modifiers such as terrain effects.

7.6 Out of Supply Effects
Units out of supply may attack at half strength rounded up and have a -1 die roll modifier if defending.

8.0 Supply
Supply is checked at the beginning of each friendly movement phase and also during the Combat Phase (both players). Units, which are not in supply, attack at half strength (rounded up), and may not move during the Second Movement Phase.

To be in supply, a unit must be able to trace an unimpeded supply path to either a supply source or supply units. Each Game Rulesbook will list supply sources and how many hexes a unit may trace to a supply source. To trace supply to an Headquarters unit, the unit must be within five hex range of the Headquarters and the Headquarters must be able to trace five hexes to a road, main road, or rail that is connected to a supply source and is free of enemy units or enemy ZOCs. When counting the hexes in a supply path, always count the hex the supply source or Headquarters is in, but never count the hex that the unit tracing the supply path is in.

A supply path may not be traced through hexes containing enemy units, prohibited terrain, nor through hexes containing an enemy ZOC and no friendly unit to negate the effects of that ZOC.

9.0 Morale
Each unit has a Morale Rating, except HQs, which have a morale of 8. This is used to determine when a unit disrupts and when a disrupted unit rallies. Whenever a result on the CRT calls for a unit to check for disruption, a die is rolled and compared to the Morale Rating. If the die result is greater than the Morale Rating, then the unit disrupts and a D marker is placed on the unit (if the unit already has a D marker, then a DD marker is placed, while a unit with a DD marker that suffers another D result is eliminated). Units in a stack are always checked separately.

9.1 Morale Recovery
During the Morale Recovery Phase, each disrupted unit of the phasing player is checked for disruption removal. Only units in supply may check for disruption removal. To do so, the owning player rolls a die, modifies the die roll by a +1 if adjacent to an enemy unit, and compares the modified result to the unit's current Morale Rating. If the die roll is equal to or less than the Morale Rating, one level of disruption is removed. If the die roll is greater, the unit remains at the current level of disruption.

9.2 Effects of Disruption
The effects of disruption are as follows:
a. Disrupted units have their Morale Rating reduced by one per level of disruption (e.g. a DD unit has its morale rating reduced by 2).
b. Disrupted units have their Defense Factors reduced by 1 (whether the unit is D or DD).
c. Disrupted units may not initiate combat, nor may they advance after combat.
d. Disrupted artillery units may not conduct bombardments.
e. If a disrupted unit with a DD receives a D result during Bombardment or Combat, it is eliminated.
f. If a disrupted unit with a D receives a DD result during Bombardment or Combat, it is eliminated.
g. If a disrupted unit with a D receives a D result during Bombardment or Combat, it has the D marker removed and a DD marker placed on top of it.
h. Only one level of disruption may be removed during a Morale recovery.
Note: A disruption check and a morale check are done by the same procedure.

9.4 Command Effectiveness
Checks for Command Effectiveness occur during the friendly Morale Recovery Phase. As units are removed from play either through rout or elimination, they are placed on the Morale Charts with their correct Command. When placing on the display, begin in the upper left corner and proceed across the line. If there is more than one line, begin at the left of the next line down when the upper row is filled. As units are placed on the display, one to a box, there will be symbols in some of the boxes. When such a symbol occurs, the player must make a check for Command Effectiveness. To do so, the player checks the type of check being made, and then rolls a ten sided die. He compares this roll to the number in the symbol. If the die roll is equal to or less than the number, there is no effect on the Command. If it is larger, then the Command must check for effects on its Effectiveness.

Note: Headquarters are treated like other units of the command for all checks required during the Morale Recovery Phase.

Below are explained the different symbols and the effects on the Command:

A square symbol is used for a Waver check. When a Command fails a Waver check, the player must check each unit from that Command that is D or DD result for further disruption. Undisrupted units are not affected by a Waver result.

A circle symbol is used for a Shaken check. When a Command fails a Shaken check, the player must check each unit (whether already disrupted or undisrupted) in the Command for disruption.

A triangle symbol is used for a Broken check. When a Command fails a Broken check, all currently disrupted units gain one level of disruption and make a Disruption check for a further level of disruption .Then, the player must check each undisrupted unit in the command for disruption. No units in the command may initiate Combat, or enter an enemy ZOC and have their morale lowered by 1 (in addition to the affects of 9.2a). This is in effect for the rest of the game.

10.0 Air Power
In game terms, each game turn, air units may perform one, and only one, of three types of missions: air superiority, interdiction, and ground support. During the friendly Artillery Bombardment and Air Phase, the phasing player may assign air units missions. The non-phasing player may assign air units to air superiority. During the Artillery Bombardment and Air Phase, missions are resolved as follows: Air Superiority, Interdiction, and Ground Support.

10.1 Air Superiority
After both players have secretly assigned air units to air superiority, both players reveal the air units they have allocated to air superiority. The following procedure is then used:

10.12 Air Superiority Procedure
1. Each side reveals the units assigned to air superiority.
2. The side with more air units must decide whether to commit the excess units to air superiority combat, use them to bounce opposing air units on Interdiction or Ground Support missions, or assign some to each.
3. Each player now rolls one die for each air unit and compares the result to the air unit's combat factor. On a die roll equal to or greater than the combat factor, a hit occurs and an enemy air unit is removed from play and placed on the game turn track five turns more than the current turn. These air units will return as reinforcements during the First Player's Initial Movement Phase (both sides). The owning player always chooses the losses.
4. Air combat is simultaneous and results are applied after all die rolls.
5. Remaining air units are placed face down in the air superiority box until the end of the turn, when they are removed from the box and flipped face-up.

10.13 "Bouncing" Air Units on Other Missions
Excess units assigned to Air Superiority may "bounce" enemy air units on other missions. This may be done in either Artillery Bombardment and Air Phase of the turn. To "bounce" an air unit, place the air unit on top of the air unit to be bounced and remove both units from play. Both air units have completed play for the current turn . Next turn, they return to play normally.

10.2 Interdiction
To interdict a hex, an air unit is placed on the hex during the friendly Artillery Bombardment and Air Phase. It remains in the hex for one full turn, until the next friendly Artillery Bombardment and Air Phase. At that time, it may be used a different mission or the same.

Effects if Interdiction
Units pay an extra 2 movement points to enter the hex. No rail line may be traced through the hex. Supply may be traced through the interdicted hex.

10.3 Ground Support
During the friendly Artillery Bombardment and Air Phase, an air unit may be placed on top of an enemy occupied hex. Bombardment is then conducted with each air unit having a bombardment factor of 8. The bombardment uses the same procedure as the artillery does for bombardment. Once resolved, the air unit is removed from the hex. Air bombardment may not be combined with artillery, but the same hex may undergo both artillery bombardment and ground support in the same turn.


Design & Development:
Rob Markham

Mark Seaman, Brian Mulvihill, Alex Kachevsky, Gary Jennings, Jose Espinal, Noel Wright, Brett Boseman.

Rules Editing:
Steve Carey

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©2001 Rob Markham